The Effect of Technology-Mediated Diabetes Prevention Interventions on Weight: A Meta-Analysis

Background: Lifestyle interventions targeting weight loss, such as those delivered through the Diabetes Prevention Program, reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Technology-mediated interventions may be an option to help overcome barriers to program delivery, and to disseminate diabetes prevention programs on a larger scale. Objective: We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of such technology-mediated interventions on weight loss. Methods: In this meta-analysis, six databases were searched to identify studies reporting weight change that used technology to mediate diet and exercise interventions, and targeted individuals at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Studies published between January 1, 2002 and August 4, 2016 were included. Results: The search identified 1196 citations. Of those, 15 studies met the inclusion criteria and evaluated 18 technology-mediated intervention arms delivered to a total of 2774 participants. Study duration ranged from 12 weeks to 2 years. A random-effects meta-analysis showed a pooled weight loss effect of 3.76 kilograms (95% CI 2.8-4.7; P<.001) for the interventions. Several studies also reported improved glycemic control following the intervention. The small sample sizes and heterogeneity of the trials precluded an evaluation of which technology-mediated intervention method was most efficacious. Conclusions: Technology-mediated diabetes prevention programs can result in clinically significant amounts of weight loss, as well as improvements in glycaemia in patients with prediabetes. Due to their potential for large-scale implementation, these interventions will play an important role in the dissemination of diabetes prevention programs. Journal of Medical Internet Research

Newsroom: Nederlandse diabetes patiënten gebruiken implanteerbare sensor

eHealth en mHealth nieuws uit Nederland en het buitenland: alles over gezondheidsapps, wearables, persoonlijk gezondheidsdossier, fitness en wellness.

Het bericht Newsroom: Nederlandse diabetes patiënten gebruiken implanteerbare sensor verscheen eerst op SmartHealth.

SmartHealth

Effects on Engagement and Health Literacy Outcomes of Web-Based Materials Promoting Physical Activity in People With Diabetes: An International Randomized Trial

Background: Developing accessible Web-based materials to support diabetes self-management in people with lower levels of health literacy is a continuing challenge. Objective: The objective of this international study was to develop a Web-based intervention promoting physical activity among people with type 2 diabetes to determine whether audiovisual presentation and interactivity (quizzes, planners, tailoring) could help to overcome the digital divide by making digital interventions accessible and effective for people with all levels of health literacy. This study also aimed to determine whether these materials can improve health literacy outcomes for people with lower levels of health literacy and also be effective for people with higher levels of health literacy. Methods: To assess the impact of interactivity and audiovisual features on usage, engagement, and health literacy outcomes, we designed two versions of a Web-based intervention (one interactive and one plain-text version of the same content) to promote physical activity in people with type 2 diabetes. We randomly assigned participants from the United Kingdom, Austria, Germany, Ireland, and Taiwan to either an interactive or plain-text version of the intervention in English, German, or Mandarin. Intervention usage was objectively recorded by the intervention software. Self-report measures were taken at baseline and follow-up (immediately after participants viewed the intervention) and included measures of health literacy, engagement (website satisfaction and willingness to recommend the intervention to others), and health literacy outcomes (diabetes knowledge, enablement, attitude, perceived behavioral control, and intention to undertake physical activity). Results: In total, 1041 people took part in this study. Of the 1005 who completed health literacy information, 268 (26.67%) had intermediate or low levels of health literacy. The interactive intervention overall did not produce better outcomes than did the plain-text version. Participants in the plain-text intervention group looked at significantly more sections of the intervention (mean difference –0.47, 95% CI –0.64 to –0.30, P<.001), but this did not lead to better outcomes. Health literacy outcomes, including attitudes and intentions to engage in physical activity, significantly improved following the intervention for participants in both intervention groups. These improvements were similar across higher and lower health literacy levels and in all countries. Participants in the interactive intervention group had acquired more diabetes knowledge (mean difference 0.80, 95% CI 0.65-0.94, P<.001). Participants from both groups reported high levels of website satisfaction and would recommend the website to others. Conclusions: Following established practice for simple, clear design and presentation and using a person-based approach to intervention development, with in-depth iterative feedback from users, may be more important than interactivity and audiovisual presentations when developing accessible digital health interventions to improve health literacy outcomes. ClinicalTrial: International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 43587048; http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN43587048. (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6nGhaP9bv) Journal of Medical Internet Research

Sustained Use of Patient Portal Features and Improvements in Diabetes Physiological Measures

Background: Personal health records (PHRs) have the potential to improve patient self-management for chronic conditions such as diabetes. However, evidence is mixed as to whether there is an association between PHR use and improved health outcomes. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between sustained use of specific patient portal features (Web-based prescription refill and secure messaging—SM) and physiological measures important for the management of type 2 diabetes. Methods: Using a retrospective cohort design, including Veterans with diabetes registered for the My Health e Vet patient portal who had not yet used the Web-based refill or SM features and who had at least one physiological measure (HbA1c, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, blood pressure) in 2009-2010 (baseline) that was above guideline recommendations (N=111,686), we assessed portal use between 2010 and 2014. We calculated the odds of achieving control of each measure by 2013 to 2014 (follow-up) by years of using each portal feature, adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics associated with portal use. Results: By 2013 to 2014, 34.13% (38,113/111,686) of the cohort was using Web-based refills, and 15.75% (17,592/111,686) of the cohort was using SM. Users were slightly younger (P<.001), less likely to be eligible for free care based on economic means (P<.001), and more likely to be women (P<.001). In models adjusting for both features, patients with uncontrolled HbA1c at baseline who used SM were significantly more likely than nonusers to achieve glycemic control by follow-up if they used SM for 2 years (odds ratio—OR=1.24, CI: 1.14-1.34) or 3 or more years (OR=1.28, CI: 1.12-1.45). However, there was no significant association between Web-based refill use and glycemic control. Those with uncontrolled blood pressure at baseline who used Web-based refills were significantly more likely than nonusers to achieve control at follow-up with 2 (OR=1.07, CI: 1.01-1.13) or 3 (OR=1.08, CI: 1.02-1.14) more years of Web-based refill use. Both features were significantly associated with improvements in LDL cholesterol levels at follow-up. Conclusions: Although rates of use of the refill function were higher within the population, sustained SM use had a greater impact on HbA1c. Evaluations of patient portals should consider that individual components may have differential effects on health improvements. Journal of Medical Internet Research