PICT0005

PICT0005
ehealth
Image by moritz.schmaltz

How do patents affect research investments?

  Biowebspin, January 30th, 2016

How do patents affect research investments?

by Heidi L. Williams, 2017

While patent systems have been widely used both historically and internationally, there is nonetheless a tremendous amount of controversy over whether patent systems – in practice – improve the alignment between private returns and social contributions. In this paper, I describe three parameters – how the disclosure function affects research investments, how patent strength affects research investments in new technologies, and how patents on existing technologies affect follow-on innovation – needed to inform the question of how patents affect research investments, and review the available evidence which has attempted to empirically estimate these parameters.

  Get Full text: PDF-icon

The post How do patents affect research investments? appeared first on Biowebspin.

Biowebspin

PICT0002

PICT0002
ehealth
Image by moritz.schmaltz

PICT0001

PICT0001
ehealth
Image by moritz.schmaltz

Innovation without corporate R&D? An analysis of the Italian case and implications for policy

  Biowebspin, October 14th, 2016

Innovation without corporate R&D? An analysis of the Italian case and implications for policy

by Pietro MONCADA-PATERNÒ-CASTELLO and Nicola GRASSANO, 2016

This paper analyses the status of private R&D investment in Italy based on a collection of recent evidences and indicates possible policy actions to boost private R&D investment. Our analysis relies on microdata from an unbalanced 10 years’ panel data-set (2004-2013), built using several waves of the European Industrial R&D Investment Scoreboard and on other sources of quantitative and qualitative information (e.g. OECD, ISTAT, EUROSTAT, ERAWATCH Country Report – Italy, 2013, State of the Innovation Union, 2014). We also took into account recent academic literature on the topic. Based on all this, we argue that: i) innovation in firms’ without their engagement in R&D activities is not sustainable in the medium and long term to reach higher levels of innovation, competitiveness and growth; ii) the Italian R&D and innovation (and competitiveness) gap is due to ‘systemic’/structural reasons and thus targeted high quality policies are needed to address these issues; iii) such policy interventions will have little positive impact without comprehensive reform aimed at improving the innovation environment as a whole. Careful design of an ‘innovation strategy’ that includes support for R&D is needed. This strategy should be fine-tuned to tackle the actual specificities of the Italian economic context and its R&D-led innovation difficulties.

  Get Full text: PDF-icon

The post Innovation without corporate R&D? An analysis of the Italian case and implications for policy appeared first on Biowebspin.

Biowebspin

Redefining responsible research and innovation for the advancement of biobanking and biomedical research

  Biowebspin, October 17th, 2016

Redefining responsible research and innovation for the advancement of biobanking and biomedical research

by Helen Yu in J Law Biosci, 2016

One of the core objectives of responsible research and innovation (RRI) is to maximize the value of publicly funded research so that it may be returned to benefit society. However, while RRI encourages innovation through societal engagement, it can give rise to complex and previously untested issues that challenge the existing legal frameworks on intellectual property (IP) and public entitlement to benefits of research. In the case of biobanking, the personal nature of human biological materials and often altruistic intention of participants to donate samples intensifies the need to adhere to RRI principles with respect to the research, development, and commercialization of innovations derived from biobanks. However, stakeholders participate and collaborate with others in the innovation process to fulfill their own agenda. Without IP to safeguard investments in R&D, stakeholders may hesitate to contribute to the translation of discoveries into innovations. To realize the public benefit objective, RRI principles must protect the interests of stakeholders involved in the translation and commercialization of knowledge. This article explores the seemingly contradictory and competing objectives of open science and commercialization and proposes a holistic innovation framework directed at improving RRI practice for positive impact on obtaining the optimal social and economic values from research.

  Get Full text: PDF-icon

The post Redefining responsible research and innovation for the advancement of biobanking and biomedical research appeared first on Biowebspin.

Biowebspin

Collaboration Is Key to Innovation in Biotechnology

  Biowebspin, October 21th, 2016

Collaboration Is Key to Innovation in Biotechnology

by Donald Johnston in Bioprocess International, 2016

A new report from Thomson Reuters shows that innovation in biotechnology declined slightly in 2015, and biotech is the only one of a dozen worldwide industries examined to show that kind of decline (1). To measure innovation, compilers used metrics such as patents filed and scientific literature cited. Looking at the details, however, the dip was just a 2% drop from 42,584 events in 2014 to 41,624 in 2015. The same dynamics had revealed a 7% increase in innovation from 2013 to 2014.

Indeed, the report notes that the sector experienced a number of “firsts” in 2015. It cites as examples both CRISPRs (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats, segments of prokaryotic DNA) and editing of a human-embryo germline. “CRISPR ‘interference’ involved making targeted modifications to segments of DNA to alter its immunity,” the report states. “Such work has implications not only for humans, but also for food crops and other plants and animals.”

Other noteworthy innovations highlighted in the report include US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approvals of the first biospecific antibody (Amgen’s Blincyto product); the first biosimilar in the United States (Novartis’s Zarxio product); and the first biotech food animal (Aquabounty Technologies’ salmon).

  Get Full text: PDF-icon

The post Collaboration Is Key to Innovation in Biotechnology appeared first on Biowebspin.

Biowebspin

Understanding healthcare innovation systems: the Stockholm region case

  Biowebspin, October 25th, 2016

Understanding healthcare innovation systems: the Stockholm region case

by Lisa-Marie Larisch, Isis Amer-Wåhlin, Patrik Hidefjäll, in Journal of Health Organization and Management, 2016

Purpose
There is an increasing interest in understanding how innovation processes can address current challenges in healthcare. The purpose of this case study was to analyze the wider socio-economic context and conditions for such innovation processes in the Stockholm region, using the functional dynamics approach to innovation systems (ISs).

Design/methodology/approach
The analysis is based on triangulation using data from 16 in-depth interviews, two workshops and additional documents. Using the functional dynamics approach, critical structural and functional components of the healthcare innovation system were analyzed.

Findings
The analysis revealed several mechanisms blocking innovation processes such as fragmentation, lack of clear leadership, as well as insufficient involvement of patients and healthcare professionals. Further, innovation is expected to occur linearly as a result of research. Restrictive rules for collaboration with industry, reimbursement and procurement mechanisms limit entrepreneurial experimentation, commercialization and spread of innovations.

Research limitations/implications
In this study we analyzed how certain functions of the functional dynamics approach to innovation systems related to each other. We grouped knowledge creation, resource mobilization and legitimacy as they jointly constitute conditions for needs articulation and entrepreneurial experimentation. The economic effects of entrepreneurial experimentation and needs articulation are mainly determined by the stage of market formation and existence of positive externalities.

Originality/value
This study is the first to provide an analysis of the system of innovation in healthcare using a functional dynamics approach, which has evolved as a tool for public policy making. A better understanding of ISs in general, and in healthcare in particular, may provide the basis for designing and evaluating innovation policy.

  See the article and check access: PDF-iconIf you can’t access this article, do not hesitate to contact us.

The post Understanding healthcare innovation systems: the Stockholm region case appeared first on Biowebspin.

Biowebspin

From Gutenberg to Open Science: An Unfulfilled Odyssey

Biowebspin, October 28th, 2016

From Gutenberg to Open Science: An Unfulfilled Odyssey

by Chris R. Triggle, David J. Triggle in Drug development research, 2016

With the almost global availability of the Internet comes the expectation of universal accessibility to knowledge, including scientific knowledge-particularly that generated by public funding. Currently this is not the case. In this Commentary we discuss access to this knowledge, the politics that govern peer review and publication, and the role of this knowledge as a public good in medicine.

With the almost global availability of the Internet comes the expectation of universal accessibility to knowledge, including scientific knowledge-particularly that generated by public funding. Currently this is not the case. In this Commentary we discuss access to this knowledge, the politics that govern peer review and publication, and the role of this knowledge as a public good in medicine.

Gutenberg’s invention of the printing press in 1440 opened an avenue for the distribution of scholarly information to the entire world. The scientific literature first appeared in 1665 with Le Journal des Sçavans followed in the same year by Philosophical Transactions. Today there are more than 5000 scientific publishing companies, 25,000 journals and 1.5 million articles published/year generating revenue of $ 25 billion USD.

The European Union and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development have argued for open access (OA) to scientific data for all publicly funded research by 2020 with a similar initiative in the USA via the Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR). However, OA to published science is but one step in this odyssey. If the products of science are not openly available then it can be argued that the norms of science as defined by Merton including “universalism” and “communalism” have yet to be accomplished. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the delivery of medicines to the poor and for rare diseases, the attempts to privatize human genetic information and, not least, dealing with the challenges of antibiotic resistance and new disease pandemics exacerbated by climate change.

  Get Full text: PDF-icon

The post From Gutenberg to Open Science: An Unfulfilled Odyssey appeared first on Biowebspin.

Biowebspin

PICT0003

PICT0003
ehealth
Image by moritz.schmaltz